This Day In History : August 19

1919 Afghanistan

Afghanistan gain full independence from the United Kingdom

Afghanistan gained full independence from the United Kingdom on August 19, 1919. This was formalized through the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi, following the Third Anglo-Afghan War, which marked the end of British influence and control over Afghanistan's foreign affairs.

Also on This Day in History August 19

Discover what happened on August 19 with HISTORY's summaries of major events, anniversaries,
famous births and notable deaths.

Births on This Day, August 19
  • 1883 Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel

    French fashion designer who invented the house of Chanel

  • 1919 Malcolm Forbes

    American publisher and politician (Forbes Magazine)

  • 1935 Story Musgrave

    American physician and NASA astronaut (STS-6, -51-F, -33, -44, -61, -80)

  • 1899 Franz C. Schmelkes

    Czech-born Chemist who discovered azochloramid (chlorazodin), widely used as a disinfectant to sterilize wounds and burns

  • 1830 Julius Lothar Meyer

    German Chemist who developed the first periodic table of chemical elements independently of Dimitri Mendeleev

Deaths on This Day, August 19
  • 1994 Linus Pauling

    American chemist, engineer and peace activist (1954 Nobel prize for Chemistry, 1962 Nobel Peace Prize)

  • 1993 Donald William Kerst

    American Physicist who developed the betatron (device to accelerate electron beams)

  • 1822 Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Delambre

    French mathematician and astronomer (The History of Astronomy)

  • 1662 Blaise Pascal

    French mathematician, physicist and Christian philosopher (Pascal's Law, Pascal's Wager)

  • 1887 Alvan Clark

    American astronomer and maker of the Dearborn Observatory telescope, the largest telescope in the world at the time


The first geostationary communication satellite, Syncom 3 was launched

The first geostationary communication satellite, Syncom 3, was launched on August 19, 1964, by NASA. This satellite was a significant milestone in the field of telecommunications, enabling continuous communication over the Pacific Ocean and facilitating the first live broadcast of the Olympic Games from Tokyo to the United States.

Sputnik 5 was launched into Earth orbit, carrying live animals

On August 19, 1960, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 5 into Earth orbit. This mission carried two dogs, named Belka (Squirrel) and Strelka (Little Arrow), along with 40 mice, 2 rats, and a variety of plants. This mission marked the beginning of a safe round trip into space, with Belka, Strelka, and the other organisms becoming the first living organisms to return safely from space.

Soyuz T-7 launched, Svetlana Savtiskaya 2nd woman in space

Soyuz T-7 was launched on August 19, 1982, from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Soviet Union. This mission was significant as it included Svetlana Savitskaya, who became the second woman to travel to space. Savitskaya, a Soviet cosmonaut, joined the Soyuz T-7 mission alongside her colleagues, Leonid Popov and Aleksandr Serebrov.

The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, called Peace Mission 2005 begins

The first-ever joint military exercise between Russia and China, named "Peace Mission 2005," began on August 19, 2005. The exercise aimed to enhance the strategic partnership and foster mutual trust and collaboration between the Russian and Chinese armed forces. It included a range of activities such as amphibious landings, airborne operations, and naval maneuvers, conducted in various locations across both nations.
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